First open a terminal and go to the correct directory to check a downloaded iso file:
Then run the following command from within the download directory.
sha256sum should then print out a single line after calculating the hash:
Compare the hash (the alphanumeric string on left) that your machine calculated with the corresponding hash in the SHA256SUMS file.
When both hashes match exactly then the downloaded file is almost certainly intact. If the hashes do not match, then there was a problem with either the download or a problem with the server. You should download the file again from either the same mirror, or from a different mirror if you suspect a server error. If you continuously receive an erroneous file from a server, please be kind and notify the web-master of that mirror so they can investigate the issue.
First download the SHA256SUMS and SHA256SUMS.gpg files to the same directory as the iso. Then run the following commands in a terminal.
sha256sum -c SHA256SUMS 2>&1 | grep OK
The sha256sum line should output a line such as:
If the OK for your file appears, that indicates the hash matches.
Once you have verified the sha256 hash, go ahead and burn the CD. You may want to refer to the BurningIsoHowto page.
Check the CD
So far so good, you have downloaded an iso and verified its integrity. When you boot from the CD you will be given the option to test its integrity. Great, but if the CD is corrupt then you have already wasted time rebooting. You can check the integrity of the CD without rebooting as follows.
Check the calculated hash against UbuntuHashes as shown for the iso file above. Depending on your system, you may need to change cdrom to cdrom0 (or even cdrom1 if you have two CD drives).
Congratulations, you now have a verified Ubuntu CD. Go ahead and use it (or play frisbee with it if you want).
digest(1) on Solaris
Use the Solaris digest(1) command, specifying the sha256 algorithm with the -a flag. For instance:
$ digest -a sha256 ubuntu-9.10-dvd-i386.iso
SHA256SUM of burnt media
Depending on how you burn your ISOs you can check the burnt media directly. Start by checking that the ISO file is correct:
$ grep ubuntu-9.10-dvd-i386.iso SHA256SUMS | tee /proc/self/fd/2 | sha256sum --check -
Now burn it from Nautilus (right-click, "Write to Disc ..."). To check the media directly:
$ sha256sum /dev/cdrom
where "/dev/cdrom" is typically a soft-link to your CD/DVD reader/burner. Note that the checksum matches.